He aha ka geomatics pono i ka maʻamau LADM aina hooponopono

Uaʻikeʻiaʻo LADMʻo keʻano hoʻomalu o ka'āina (Hoʻohālike o nā Aupuni Administration), a lilo i ISO 19152 mai 2012.

ʻAʻole ia he polokalamu, akā he hiʻohiʻona manaʻo e hōʻike ana i ka pilina ma waena o ka poʻe a me ka ʻāina; hoʻohālikelike ia i ka mea i like a like ʻole ma kēlā me kēia ʻāina. he hana i hana ʻia i kekahi mea i manaʻo ʻia ma ka 2014 Cadastre ma ke ʻano he abstract. ʻImi ia e hōʻalo i ka hana hou a me ka hoʻokō hou ʻana o nā hana like ma o kahi kumu i hoʻonui ʻia a maʻalahi hoʻi i nā ʻoihana e kamaʻilio me nā lawelawe kaulike i ka pōʻaiapili āpau.

Lii i geographers a me kanaka ua hoʻopili i geomatics ike pehea e hoakaka Ke Ana Hoʻohālike kauoha, hana i kēia me ka, e wehewehe i ke kumu o keia hae, mai ka manawa i kona wa i conceptualized like CCDM.

He mea hauʻoli ia i ka LADM, ma kahi hapa o kāna mea e inu māmā, ke manaʻo neiʻo ka hoʻoponoponoʻana i ka'āina he manaʻoʻole i ka manawa,ʻaʻole i loli i nā makahiki he mau makahiki:

Loaʻa iā ia ka pilina ma waena o ke kanaka a me ka honua. He mea ʻole ka moʻomeheu kahi e kālailai ʻia ai, hōʻike mai ka mōʻaukala iā mākou i kekahi mea like: ʻO ka poʻe, e like me ka hihia o ʻAdamu lāua ʻo Ewa, ʻo lākou nā ʻelele e mālama i ka māla o ʻEdena, me ke kuleana i loko, he kuleana no ka mea ma laila. a me nā kapu e ʻai ʻole mai kahi lāʻau i pāpā ʻia a me nā rula o ka lawe ʻana inā ʻaʻole lākou e ukali iā lākou.

I ka mahinaai e kapaia ia kenekoa mea (BAUnits) me ka pono hiʻohiʻona (RRR) me nā kānaka hoʻopukapuka kālā, ua hoʻopili i ka poe (Party) e Source, a ma kekahi mau ano o ka hoohalike o ka māheleʻahahui (Spacial Unit).

LADM

ʻO kaʻoiaʻiʻo,ʻoiai ka holomuaʻana o nāʻoihana kuleana waiwai, aia kekahi mau hihia koʻikoʻi ma ke kelepona palapala mau i kēlā manawa akā i ka wā e kali ana e hōʻoia i kā lākou hōʻike, aia kekahi mau mea like:

ʻO kekahi mau mea nona kahi pilina 60% - 40% o kahi waiwai i lilo i ke keʻena 23 ma ka papa ʻehā o kahi hale, a ʻo ia pū kekahi kuleana i nā wahi kaʻa ʻelua i ka lumi lalo 4 a me ka pono i ka condominium me nā kamaʻāina āpau. mai ka hale a i ke keʻena o kēlā me kēia pae a me kahi barbecue ma ka papa ʻewalu. Maʻalahi ke kānāwai, kākau wale ʻia ia akā e nīnau iā mākou iho pehea mākou e hoʻohālikelike ai i ka cadastre 1D, a i ʻole ma ka 3 D.

Me ka LADM ʻimi ʻia ke ala o ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana i ka manaʻo o ka hoʻokele kuleana ʻāina i nā pono kamepiula. Ma muli o ka like o ka ʻoihana, ʻokoʻa ia i kahi liʻiliʻi, ʻo ia ka waena a me nā kaʻina hana i kikoʻī loa e ka ʻāina a i ʻole ka hoʻopaʻi. ʻO ke ʻano maʻamau o ka lawelawe ʻana i nā mea hoʻohālikelike me he mea lā he nalu astral wale nō ka LADM no nā ʻepekema lolouila, no ka mea ua hoʻohālikelike ʻia ia i ka UML mai nā papa a me nā pilina, akā, ʻo ka mea ana e noi ana i ka papahana he ʻāpana ia o ke kuleana. Nā Nūkini 2014: «Kāhea ola lōʻihi.

No laila, i keʻano o nā semanticism geospatial, i kauʻia ma nā hana nui o ka hoʻomalu'āina:

2014-01-12 18.17.01

  •  E mālama i ke ahonui - Kumuhana - Hoʻohālikelike ka pilina pili kānāwai (P - RRR - RO)
  • a hāʻawi i nāʻike e pili ana i kēia moʻolelo.

Ke ʻimi nei hoʻi ke kumu hoʻohālikelike e kōkua i ka hana maʻamau o ka ʻenehana ʻenehana e kū ma ka ʻaoʻao hoʻokahi i ka lako (Internet, database data, modelized models, open source licences and GIS) a ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe he koi no nā lawelawe e hoʻohana pono ana i kēia ʻenehana (aupuni. uila, hoʻomohala hoʻomau, palapala uila a me ka hoʻopili ʻana o ka ʻikepili lehulehu a me nā ʻōnaehana). ʻO kekahi o nā mea maikaʻi o ka LADM hiki ke hiki ke hoʻopili ʻia i kēlā me kēia ʻāina, me ka nānā ʻole i kāna kānāwai, ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana o ka cadastre a me ke kākau inoa, a me ke ʻano o nā mea hana e hoʻohana ʻia no ka automation. Hōʻike ia i nā papa maʻamau, a mai laila ʻoe e hana ai i nā papa kikoʻī no ka ʻāina akā i ka hopena ua kūlike ka manaʻo.

Ka nui ka lanakila o ka LADM mea i kuhikuhi ana kālaiʻike ke kākoʻo 'ana ma laau i hāpai' no ka kūlanaʻano mea, ua ola, e like me Linz a me LandXML o Australia / New Zealand, National noniakahi Land System o Americans (mua FGDC), puu kūlanaʻano o ka Europa Kuleana ma Science, a Technology (KAU), ke Kōmike ISO / TC211 o ka OGC a keu hoʻi i ka lobbying ma nā wahi hopena kiʻekiʻe. A ʻo ka mea paʻakikī e hana i kahi kūlana ka hoʻokau a hana hou ʻana paha i ka mea a ka poʻe ʻē aʻe i loea i mua.

 

He moʻolelo nui

La laau hānau ʻia i ka makahiki 2002, hoʻāʻo e kūpono i kēia hoʻāʻo a me lobby me nā hana hou e like me ka hihia o Inspire a me ka manaʻo IDE i paʻa a puni ka makahiki 2003. No laila, i nā pōkole pōkole ua hele ka LADM ma o nā manawa like ʻole o ka hōʻike, ke kūkākūkā a me ka hoʻololi ʻana o nā ʻokoʻa nā mana i lawe i ka inoa o ke kūlanakauhale kahi i hōʻike ʻia ai lākou, a hiki i ka lilo ʻana iā ISO 19152 o 2012:

2014-01-12 18.17.40

  •  IʻApelila o 2002 hiki ke hanaʻia kekahi mea i ka manawa mua.
  • I Kepakemapa o 2002, hōʻikeʻia ka 1 ma ka'OGC i kapaʻiaʻo Noordwijk, a ma Delft i ka COST Workshop.
  • Ma Malaki 2003 mana 2 i kapa ʻia ʻo Paris, kēlā makahiki like i ka FIG a no kēia lā ua hoʻolaha ʻo OGC i ka LPI
  • I Kepakemapa 2003 mana 3 i kapa ʻia ʻo Brno ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia i Polani. No kēia lā, ua hoʻohui ʻia nā hoʻolōʻihi o ka cadastre multipurpose 3D. Ua hōʻike ʻia ia ma ka European Land Information Service EULIS.
  • Ma 2004 ka palapala 4 i kapaʻiaʻo Bamberg, hōʻikeʻia ma nā hiʻohiʻona FIG ma Germany a me Kenya.
  • Ma 2005 mana 5 i kapa ʻia ʻo Kairo, ma ka hanana FIG ma ʻAigupita. I kēlā manawa, ua hoʻohui ʻia nā pae maʻamau a ka OGC ma o ke Kōmike ISO / TC 211; ʻOiai ua paʻi kēia kōmike ma mua o 50 mau kaulike o ka hoihoi nui i ka papa honua, lawe ka LADM ʻelua ma aneʻi: Geometry a me Topology). Eia kekahi no kēia lā e lilo ia i mea kikoʻī i ka cadastral data.
  • Ma 2006 ka 6 ka mea i kapa ʻia ʻo Moscow i hōʻike ʻia, ʻo ia nō kēia ʻāpana a mākou i kamaʻilio ai i Geofumadas ma ka ʻatikala «he kŘkohu maʻamau no cadastre«. Hoʻopili kēia i ke kūkulu ʻana i ka RRR a wehewehe ʻokoʻa ʻia ka ʻāpana o ka ʻāpana i nā papa poni āpau.

Mai ka 2006 a hiki i ka 2008 ka hoʻoikaikaʻana e kau i ka hōʻoiaʻana ma keʻano he kūlana.

  • I ka malamaʻoʻOkakopa o 2006, ua hōʻike muaʻia ka 1.0 Version inā no ia lā i kapaʻiaʻo CCDM (Core Cadastral Domain Model).

Ka papa hana o ka hoʻohuliʻana iā ia i kahi kūlana ISO, ma o nā hālāwai kūkā o ka kūkākūkāʻana, ka hoʻonuiʻana a me ka wehewehe ponoʻana o nā kuihi; Hoʻopauʻia ka 2012 ma o ka puka PhD a Chrit Lemmen ma 2012.

Aia kahi lōʻihi loa e hele ai, ua lawe ʻē kekahi mau ʻāina i ke ana, ʻoiai he nui nā mea e koe. Ma hope o kēia hana maʻamau, ua hoʻokō ʻia kahi hana o ka hoʻokō a me ka pae ʻana, kahi i hana ʻia ai nā loulou me ka JRC (Joint Research Center of European Commission) a me UN-HABITAT (United Nations Agency for Human Settlements) e noi ʻia i nā papahana. hoʻopili ʻia i ka hoʻokele teritori. Me kēia, ua ʻike ʻia kekahi mau hiʻohiʻona waiwai i nā ʻāina like ʻole, ke kū nei ka hihia o STDM (Model Tenure Domain Model), i manaʻo ʻia he loina ʻo LADM, ma ka ʻaoʻao o FAO ʻo Flossola a ma Honduras ka prototype SIGIT e ʻimi nei i kēia manawa e hoʻonui iā SINAP.

 

ʻO ka weheweheʻana o ke Model

ʻO ka hana o kēia ʻatikala e hoʻāʻo mākou e hoʻomaopopo i ke kumu o ka LADM e pili ana i kahi hoʻolālā kiʻi. Ke hoʻāʻo nei wau e hoʻohana i nā kala e like me nā papa hoʻohālikelike, i loko o ke kūlana i ʻae ʻia e hoʻokaʻawale i ka ʻāpana kū kānāwai i ka melemele, i ke kanaka i ka ʻōmaʻomaʻo, i nā mea i ka polū, i ka palapala ʻāina i ka poni a me ka topology i ka poni. ʻO ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā kiʻi e lawe iā mākou i kahi pilina e ka hui akā koi aku au; pono mākou e aʻo e hoʻomaopopo i nā hiʻohiʻona. Hōʻike ka lewa ʻana i nā mea i ko lākou manaʻo.

[hsmap name = »ladm»]

2014-01-12 18.18.40

Nā mea nui.

Hoʻomaka ka hoʻomaka me ka pilina ma waena o nā mea nuiʻekolu:

  • Pāʻina Hoʻolālā (Kauhana), ma keʻano i hoʻohālikeʻia e like me ka Pāʻina
  • Ke kumuhana o ke kānāwai, i loko o kēia hihia e hoʻopiʻi i ka manaʻo kālai'āina o ka'āina cadastral a lawe i ka mea'āina. I ke kūlana, ua kapaʻiaʻo iaʻo BAUnit, a me ka Geometry Spatial Unit.
  • Ke kuleana, ka pilina e pili ana i ke kanaka me ka mea, ma ka mea i ho'ākākaʻia e like me RRR.

Loulou ke k modelkohu iā lākou ma o ke kumu (Puna). Hiki i kēia ke palapala a i ʻole ʻoiaʻiʻo; he ʻoiaʻiʻo maoli nō ia. Hiki ke koena i nā hihia:

  • ʻAʻole wale nō he mea nona, akā, he hui ia o nā hoʻoilina, kekahi o lākou i hoʻopaʻahaoʻia no ke ola,
  • Aia kekahi kumumanaʻo, akā, aia ma ka pepa aʻaʻohe kūpono,
  • ʻAʻole i hoʻoholo ʻia ka ʻāpana, akā ʻo ka mahele wale nō o ke kānāwai ... ua kūʻai lilo aku kekahi o nā hoahānau i kona kuleana i ʻehā mau kānaka,
  • ʻO kēia māhele i kūʻaiʻia he hale kiaʻi teleponi pūnaewele me kahi lawelawe servidurmbre,
  • ʻO kekahi hapa o ka pāhele e hoʻopilikiaʻia e kekahi wahi i mālamaʻia me kahi kūikawā kūikawā,
  • ʻO kekahi o nā kaikunāne he keiki ʻōpio, no laila ua kūmole ʻia ʻo ia e kona makuahine pelekōne ...

Inā paha aia kahi palapala ʻāina a i ʻole kū ʻole, he kū kānāwai paha ia, ʻaʻole paha e kūlike me nā kaʻina hana, he ʻoiaʻiʻo aia ma laila. No laila, ʻae ka LADM e hoʻopaʻa ʻia ka mea maoli i kahi ʻano kāohi ʻia, e hōʻike ana i ke kūlana o ke kino a me ke kānāwai.

 

ʻO kaʻaoʻao pili (Pāʻina)

E hoʻomaopopo aia ma aneʻi ua hoʻonui ʻia ke "kumuhana" maʻalahi i nā poʻe like ʻole i pili i nā hana. Pēlā mākou:

keiki hānai - kope (2)

  • ʻO kēlā kanaka kēia kanaka
  • ʻO ke kānāwai pili kānāwai, e like me keʻano o kekahi keʻena aʻoihana paha
  • ʻO ka huiʻana o nā kānaka, e like me ka hihia o ka hui'ōiwi, kahi hui, nā hui'āina, a pēlā aku.
  • ʻO ke kanaka a mea paha i hōʻoia i ka pono, e like me ka hihia loio
  • ʻO ke kanaka a mea paha i hōʻoiaʻiʻo i ka moraki, e like me kahiʻaina a mea kālā paha
  • ʻO ka mea nāna i hana i ka palapala kiko, e like me ka mea loilo.

 

 ʻO ka pilina o nā kuleana (RRR)keiki hānai - kope (3)

Maʻaneʻi, i ka cadastre kuʻuna he ʻano noho wale nō ia. Akā ua hoʻonui ʻia ke k modelkohu i hiki ai i nā ʻano ʻokoʻa o ka pilina o ke kānāwai a me nā ukana hoʻokele ke hoʻopili ʻia.

  • ʻO ka moraki a kuleana paha
  • ʻO nā hopena,ʻo ia paha he mau Restrictions, Haʻawina a me Nā Pono.
  • Ka pilina o ka nohoʻana me ke kumu.

 

Ke Kikohana o ka Pono

keiki hānai - kope (4)

Eia nā pae ʻokoʻa o nā papa, akā hoʻomaka nā mea āpau mai ka mea i kapa ʻia ʻo ka wae hoʻomalu (BAUnit). E ʻike he abstraction kēia o ka mea, inā he palapala ʻāina a palapala paha kā mākou.

ʻO kēia, no ka mea, aia kekahi mea e kākau lōlō ʻia, akā e hoʻomaka ka BAUnit mai kēlā a i ka hana i mua i nā hiʻohiʻona "no-georeferenced":

  • ʻO ka mea non-immovable,ʻo ia hoʻi, he mea hiki ke hoʻoneʻeʻia mai kahi'āpana, e like me keʻano o kahi home pūnaewele, he aniani kelepona, a pēlā aku.
  • He kikowaena o kahi waihona waiwai
  • ʻO kahi palapala inoaʻole i kuhikuhiʻia
  • ʻO kahi wahi kūlohelohe e kuhikuhi ana i kahi hale i loko o kahi hale, a hiki paha i kēia ma kahi lumi hale i loko o kahi hale.

A laila aia nā BAUnits e loaʻa nei kahiʻike hilinaʻi, aia i waena o kēia mau mea:

  • ʻO ka ʻāpana i kūkulu ʻole ʻia (ʻāpana o ka ʻāpana), hiki ke kiko, kahi o nā kiko a me nā palena.
  • ʻO ka papa hana, hiki ke hoʻohuiʻia, aiʻole kekahi mau mea e pili ana i kahi waiwai hoʻokahi.

ʻO kekahi o nā mea maikaʻi o ka lawe ʻana i ke kkohu LADM ʻaʻohe data e hōʻino ʻia, ʻaʻohe maikaʻi a maikaʻi ʻole cadastre, he hōʻike maoli wale nō ia. Aia nā keʻena hoʻokele a hiki ke hoʻomaikaʻi i ka pololei mai:

  •  ʻO kahiʻauhau o nāʻauhauʻauhau o ke aupuni i'ōlelo waleʻia i'ōleloʻia i Excel.
  • Ma hope aku hiki iā lākou ke hoʻokaʻawale, me ka hoʻokumu o ka cadastre paʻakikī he hopena maʻamau a maikaʻi.
  • A laila, hiki iāʻoe ke hoʻopili, akā,ʻaʻole me ke kūlana kiʻekiʻe loa.

Pani nā mea āpau i ka ʻike ākea o ka hoʻolālā, me nā pae ʻokoʻa o ka hōʻike no ke kumu maʻalahi "i ke kino maoli he hoʻokahi wale nō mea". He mea nui nō hoʻi ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia kahi kānāwai pilikino wale nō, akā ʻo nā kānāwai ākea, e like me ka hihia o kahi wahi i pale ʻia a i ʻole nā ​​ʻāpana mokuna i ho'ākāka ʻia i nā kānāwai like ʻole e like me kahi kahawai i hoʻopili i nā ʻāpana.

 

Keiki - kopeNā hōʻike o kēia mea.

ʻO kēia kahi papa o nā papa kūikawā e ʻae ai i ka wehewehe ʻana i nā ʻano hōʻike ʻano topographic o ka mea like, ʻo ia ke kumu e pili ai lākou i ke kumu.

ʻO ka mea nui ma aneʻi, ʻo ke anakahi liʻiliʻi o ke ana ʻana he kiko, ʻo ia ke kuleana o ka ana. Hoʻākāka ʻia nā ʻano ʻokoʻa no 2D a me 3D.

I ke kumu o nā ana ʻelua, kahi kiko, a laila ka palena ma ka pili arc-node a laila ke ʻano i ka geometry paʻa. Aia ka mea like no 3D ʻoiai eia kekahi hihia hou aʻe he mea 3D ʻaʻole i haku ʻia i nā alo.

ʻO ka pilina o keʻano o ka hōʻikeʻana o ke kapikala ma ke kumuhana, e noʻonoʻo ana e loaʻa mau ana kahi palapala e ho'ākāka ana i kahi maopopo loa i hikiʻole ke kākauʻia ma ka papahele cadastral i loko o kahi o ka pōʻaiapili.

I ka hopena, he kūlana maʻamau ka LADM e ʻike ʻia. He mea pono ia o ka abstract i hāpai ʻia i ka Cadastre 2014 a mākou i hōʻea mua ai; ʻoiai me nā mea i loaʻa i ka ʻenehana a me ka ʻāpana ʻāpana me nā pilikia he nui i ka ʻaoʻao institusional a me nā normative.

8 Pane i "He aha ka geomatist e ʻike ai e pili ana i ke kūlana hoʻomalu ʻāina LADM"

  1. ʻAʻole i hōʻike mai iaʻu i ka ho'ākākaʻana i ka wā e paʻi au i nā kiʻi

  2. Hi, hiki iāʻoe ke loaʻa i ka ppt i hōʻikeʻia ma ka kiʻi

  3. ʻOiaʻiʻo, hoʻololi ʻia ke kkohu i ka ʻāina. Inā hoʻoholo kahi ʻāina ʻaʻole hoʻohana kekahi ʻikepili iā ia ... ʻaʻole ia e hoʻohana.
    ʻO ka mea nui,ʻo ka hōʻailonaʻikepili ke hoʻohana nei i ke kūlana no kaʻikepili e hoʻohana.

  4. Inā ua paʻakikī loa ia ma Peru e hiki ai ke komo i loko o nā hale no ka loaʻaʻana o nāʻikeʻikepiliʻelua, loaʻa ka paʻakikī o ka loaʻaʻana o nāʻike i noiʻia ma ka LADM. Aʻoi aʻe ka paʻakikī e lawe i kaʻikepili o ka hapalima o ka loaʻaʻana ma Callao.

Waiho i kahi pane

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