ʻO ka hoʻonuiʻana i ka hoʻolālā, ka manaʻo o 2011

E hoʻolālā ka pānaʻi lāhui i kēia makahiki -a me nā mea e hiki mai ana- no ka mea ʻaʻohe mea nui e hana ai e hoʻoponopono i nā hopena ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa. ʻO ka nānā nui o kēia makahiki no National Geographics ka heluna kanaka o ka honua i ka pō o ka hoʻololi ʻana i 7 biliona. ʻO ka hoʻopuka Ianuali kahi ʻano o ka ʻohiʻohi.

natgeo

Ua hoʻomākaukauʻo Lincoln Institute of Policies Territorial i nā mea maʻi a me nā mea noiʻi noiʻi e loaʻa mai kahi aʻo houʻana i nā kūlanakauhale 3,000 iʻoi aʻe ma mua o nā 2000 noho ma ka 100,000 makahiki. 

ʻO ka leka i makemake nuiʻia e ka inoa ka hoʻolālā kūlanakauhaleKe hoʻolālā i ka honua no nā kūlanakauhale. Kahi hōʻike hoihoi e kālailai ana i ka wā i hala, kēia manawa a me ka wā e hiki mai ana o ka ulu kūlanakauhale ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa. Hāʻawi ia i kahi hiʻohiʻona hou pehea mākou e hoʻomākaukau ai no ka ulu ʻana o nā makahiki e hiki mai ana. 
He hana nui 'Anela, Solomon, a me Jason makua, Daniel L. Civco, a me Alejandro M. Blei.  Hiki ke kūʻai ʻia ma ka paʻi no US $ 15 a hoʻoiho ʻia i ka format PDF no ka manuahi (pono wale ʻoe e hoʻopaʻa inoa ma ka ʻaoʻao). No ka makahiki 2012 ka paʻi ʻana o kahi mea i kāhea ʻia ʻO ka hoʻonuiʻia o nā kūlanakauhale, a heʻoiaʻiʻo e lilo i mea noiʻia e pono e komo nā hōʻailona o ʻO nā kūlanakauhale kūlanakauhale, e hoʻomaopopo mai ana iaʻu i nā kumukānāwai o ka CitiVilles o Facebook a he mea weliweli ia e hoʻokumu i nā pōpilikia politika hou no ka mea he meaʻoluʻolu loa ia, uaʻike nā mea heʻano hou o colonialism.

ʻO kekahi mea'ē aʻe o ka Lincoln Institute, ma kēia kumuhana Nā papahana o ka hoʻonuiʻiaʻana o ke kūlanakauhale. He hōʻiliʻili waiwai kēia o ka ʻike i loaʻa no ka hoʻoiho i loaʻa nā palapala ʻāina i ke ʻano kiʻi, kml a me nā pepa xls i lilo i kumu no ke kūkulu ʻana i nā -A'o nā mea'ē a'e- palapala i hōʻike ʻia aʻe nei. Aia kekahi ʻikepili ma ka palapala GIS e heluhelu ʻia mai kahi papahana GIS.

Hoʻonohonohoʻia kēia i loko oʻelima mau māhele:

1. ʻO ka ʻāpana mua, aia nā kiʻi jpg i ke ʻano o nā pai pālua i paʻi ʻia e paʻi ma nā pelaha. Hoʻokahi kiʻi i nā ʻikepili helu a me nā kiʻi, nā palapala ʻāina ʻē aʻe o ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka ʻāina kūlanakauhale i kūkulu ʻia me nā ʻano ʻike mamao me nā kiʻi ukali ma nā wahi nui o Nā kūlanakauhale 120 i ʻelua mau manawa: Lawe ʻia kahi ma kahi o 1990 a me ka lua 10 mau makahiki ma hope ma 2000.

map-nine-world-regions-2000
Hōʻike ka palapala ʻāina kiʻekiʻe i kahi o nā kūlanakauhale he 120, ʻo nā kala nā wahi e like me ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana o ka hoʻopaʻa haʻawina. Ma kahi laʻana haʻalele wau iā ʻoe i ka pālua mai Madrid.

2000-madrid-palapala 2000-madrid

 

2. ʻO ka ʻāpana ʻelua o nā'ōkola e pili ana i ka hoʻonaʻauaoʻana i ka uluʻana o ka heluna o ka poʻe Nā kūlanakauhale 25, ke kālailai ʻana i nā palapala ʻāina mai ka makahiki 1800 a i ka hopena o ke kenekulia i hala iho nei. Hoʻolaha ʻia kēia mau kūlanakauhale he 25, e like me ka mea i hōʻike ʻia ma ka palapala ʻāina i lalo: 7 ma ʻAmelika, 4 ma ʻEulopa, 6 ma ʻApelika, 12 ma ʻAsia a me 1 ma Oceania.

map-nine-world-regions-history

ʻO nā kiʻi ma lalo nei kahi laʻana o ka hihia o ka kaona nui o Mekiko. Aia ma ka hema nā wahi i uhi ʻia e ka ʻāpana kūlanakauhale mai 1807 a 2000, a ma ka ʻākau nā ʻikepili heluna kanaka, nā hectare i uhi ʻia, nā kiʻiona kiʻiona a me ka palapala ʻāina kahiko i koho ʻia.

hale moʻomeheu-mexico-kūlanakauhale ka mōʻaukala-mexico

3. ʻO ka paukuʻekolu Aia pū me nā papa i Excel me nā ʻikepili āpau e kākoʻo i ka hana o nā kūlanakauhale 15 a me 120. Kupaianaha, ʻoiai ka maʻalahi o nā kānana Excel iā mākou e ʻike i kēia ʻikepili e like me kā mākou makemake.

4. ʻO ka ʻāpana ʻehā pākuʻi ʻia i ka ʻikepili e ʻike ʻia ma nā polokalamu GIS. ʻO nā geometry ʻāpana hoʻomalu ʻelua me .shp .dbf a me .shx papa e nānā me kekahi papahana, a me nā faila .prj no georeference, .img no ka hōʻike raster a me .lyr e nānā i ka papa me nā kumuhana a me nā waiwai o ka. ArcGIS.

5. ʻO ka paukū ʻelima Hoʻohuiʻia kaʻike o nā kūlanakauhale 3,646 ma kahi palapala Excel a ma kahi kml pūnaewele me nā kūlanakauhale a pau i aʻoʻia, e nānā iā ia me kahi polokalamu GIS a iʻole Google Earth.

I ka pōkole, he mea waiwai e pono ai nā haumāna, nā luna aupuni, nā mea noiʻi, nā mea hoʻolālā a me nā poʻe i komo i nā pāʻoihana hoʻolālā o ka nohona waiwai.

Hāʻawi nā atlas a me ka palapala i kahi hoʻolālā manaʻo a, me he mea lā no ka manawa mua, nā ʻike empirical o ka wā i hala, nā ʻāpana a me nā wā e hiki mai ana o nā kūlanakauhale ma nā kūlanakauhale a puni ka honua. Wehe ia i ke kuanaʻike o kahi hana paʻakikī a mākou e ʻike ʻole ai pehea e hana ai i loko o nā makahiki aʻe.

No ka mea, i kēia manawa,ʻaʻole au iʻike inā he hiki ke kūʻai aku ia ma ka CD a iʻole ke DVD, no ka mea, pono ke hanaʻia kēlā me kēia.

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